第一部分 认知革命
第二部分 农业革命
第二部分 农业革命
第三部分 人类的融合统一
第三部分 人类的融合统一
第四部分 科学革命
第四部分 科学革命
第四部分 科学革命
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112. 若想从心理和生化两种层面来讨论快乐,以下著作是很好的出发点:Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis:Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom (New York: Basic Books, 2006); R. Wright, The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life (New York: Vintage Books, 1994); M. Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’, American Psychologist 54:10 (1999): 82127; F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis and B. Keverne, ed., The Science of Well-Being (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); Michael Argyle, The Psychology of Happiness, 2nd edition (New York: Routledge, 2001); Ed Diener (ed.), Assessing Well-Being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener (New York: Springer, 2009); Michael Eid and Randy J. Larsen (eds.), The Science of Subjective Well-Being (New York: Guilford Press, 2008); Richard A. Easterlin (ed.), Happiness in Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub., 2002); Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (New York: Penguin, 2005).
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22. David J. Meltzer, First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
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73. 全球规模最大的银行,苏格兰皇家银行(Royal Bank of Scotland),于2007年申报的存款为1.3兆美元,是1500年全球总产值的五倍。参见 ‘Annual Report and Accounts 2008’, The Royal Bank of Scotland, 35, accessed December 10, 2010.
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106. 关于过去这几十年前所未有的和平状态,特别可参见:Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein, Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide (New York, N.Y.: Dutton, 2011); Gat, War in Human Civilization.
75. Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 31; Wrigley, English Population History, 295; Christian, Maps of Time, 450, 452; ‘World Health Statistic Report 2009’, 35-45, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010 http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf.
58. 关于麦元的信息,我参考了一本未出版的博士论文:Refael Benvenisti, Economic Institutions of Ancient Assyrian Trade in the Twentieth to Eighteenth Centuries BC (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 2011). 并请参见:Norman Yoffee, ‘The Economy of Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. J. M. Sasson (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1995), 1387-99; R. K. Englund, ‘Proto-Cuneiform Account-Books and Journals’, in Creating Economic Order: Record-keeping, Standardization, and the Development of Accounting in the Ancient Near East, ed. Michael Hudson and Cornelia Wunsch (Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 2004), 21-46; Marvin A. Powell, ‘A Contribution to the History of Money in Mesopotamia prior to the Invention of Coinage’, in Festschrift Lubor Matou., ed. B. Hru.ka and G. Komoróczy (Budapest: E.tv.s Loránd Tudományegyetem, 1978), 211-43; Marvin A. Powell, ‘Money in Mesopotamia’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 39:3 (1996), 224-42; John F. Robertson, ‘The Social and Economic Organization of Ancient Mesopotamian Temples’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 443-500; M. Silver, ‘Modern Ancients’, in Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction, ed. R. Rollinger and U. Christoph (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004), 65-87; Daniel C. Snell, ‘Methods of Exchange and Coinage in Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 1487-97.藏书网
84. Christian, Maps of Time, 436.
16. I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare’, World Archaology 35:1 (2003), 145-65; Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000); Azar Gat, War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vencl, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57-73.
8. Noel G. Butlin, Economics and the Dreamtime: A Hypothetical History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 98-101; Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians (Sydney: Allen & Unwin , 2002), 15; William Howell Edwards, An Introduction to Aboriginal Societies (Wentworth Falls, N.S.W.: Social Science Press, 1988), 52.
17. James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea) and the Archeology of Early Modern Humans’, in Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, ed. Paul Mellars, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Katie Boyle (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 395-410; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘When Did Humans First Arrived in Grater Australia and Why Is It Important to Know?’, Evolutionary Anthropology, 6:4 (1998), 132-46; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Dating the Colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea): A Review of Recent Research’, Journal of Radiological Science 31:6 (2004), 835-53; Jon M. Erlandson, ‘Anatomically Modern Humans, Maritime Voyaging, and the Pleistocene Colonization of the Americas’, in The first Americans: the Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, ed. Nina G. Jablonski (San Francisco: University of California Press, 2002), 59-60, 63-64; Jon M. Erlandson and Torben C. Rick, ‘Archeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems’, Annual Review of Marine Science 2 (2010), 231-51; Atholl Anderson, ‘Slow Boats from China: Issues in the Prehistory of Indo-China Seafaring’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, 16 (2000), 13- 50; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Maritime Navigation in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic’, Earth and Planetary Sciences 328 (1999), 559-60; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Seafaring in the Pleistocene’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 13:1 (2003), 41-66.
72. 当代最大的货轮能够承载大约10万吨的货物。在1470年,全球舰队船队加起来,承载量也不超过32万吨。到了1570年,总承载量已达到73万吨。(Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 97).
92. 这里举的面包店例子在计算上经过简化,并非完全精确。因为银行金库中每存有1元就能贷出10元,如果银行现在有100万美元的存款,其实只能贷出约909000美元,而必须将91000美元留在金库里。但为了方便读者理解,我还是决定将数字简化。此外,银行也并不总是遵守这些法规。
120. Liangxue Lai et al., ‘Generation of Cloned Transgenic Pigs Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids’, Nature Biotechnology 24:4 (2006), 435-36.
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