尾注
目录
第一部分 认知革命
第二部分 农业革命
第二部分 农业革命
第三部分 人类的融合统一
第三部分 人类的融合统一
第四部分 科学革命
第四部分 科学革命
第四部分 科学革命
尾注
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3. Michael L. Wilson and Richard W. Wrangham, ‘Intergroup Relations in Chimpanzees’, Annual Review of Anthropology 32 (2003), 363-392; M. McFarland Symington, ‘Fission-Fusion Social Organization in Ateles and Pan’, International Journal of Primatology, 11:1 (1990), 49; Colin A. Chapman and Lauren J. Chapman, ‘Determinants of Groups Size in Primates: The Importance of Travel Costs’, in On the Move: How and Why Animals Travel in Groups, ed. Sue Boinsky and Paul A. Garber (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 26.
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112. 若想从心理和生化两种层面来讨论快乐,以下著作是很好的出发点:Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis:Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom (New York: Basic Books, 2006); R. Wright, The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life (New York: Vintage Books, 1994); M. Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’, American Psychologist 54:10 (1999): 82127; F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis and B. Keverne, ed., The Science of Well-Being (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); Michael Argyle, The Psychology of Happiness, 2nd edition (New York: Routledge, 2001); Ed Diener (ed.), Assessing Well-Being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener (New York: Springer, 2009); Michael Eid and Randy J. Larsen (eds.), The Science of Subjective Well-Being (New York: Guilford Press, 2008); Richard A. Easterlin (ed.), Happiness in Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub., 2002); Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (New York: Penguin, 2005).
41. Andrew Robinson, The Story of Writing (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 63; Hans J. Nissen, Peter Damerow and Robert K. Englung, Archaic Bookkeeping: Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East (Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993), 36.
14. Hill and Hurtado, Aché Life History, 78.
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之前时代的死亡率请参见: Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
49. The Secretary-General, United Nations, Report of the Secretary-General on the In-depth Study on All Forms of Violence Against Women, delivered to the General Assembly, U.N. Doc. A/16/122/Add.1 (July 6, 2006), 89.
64. W.H.C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Cambridge: James Clarke & Co., 2008), 536-37.
100. Jan Willem Erisman et al, ‘How a Century of Ammonia Synthesis Changed the World’ in Nature Geoscience 1 (2008), 637.
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122. Zoe R. Donaldson and Larry J. Young, ‘Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and the Neurogenetics of Sociality’, Science 322:5903 (2008), 900–904; Zoe R. Donaldson, ‘Production of Germline Transgenic Prairie Voles (Microtus Ochrogaster) Using Lentiviral Vectors’, Biology of Reproduction 81:6 (2009), 1189-1195.
113. Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011); Inglehart et al., "Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness," 278-281.
13. Kim Hill and A. Magdalena Hurtado, Aché Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1996), 164, 236.
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Jessica Marshall, ‘The Fly Who Bugged Me’, New Scientist 197:2646 (2008), 40-43; Emily Singer, ‘Send In the Rescue Rats’, New Scientist 183:2466 (2004), 21-22; Susan Brown, ‘Stealth Sharks to Patrol the High Seas’, New Scientist 189:2541 (2006), 30-31.
54. David Graeber, Debt: The First 5000 Years (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Melv99lib•netille House, 2011).
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4. Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language, 69-79; Leslie C. Aiello and R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Neocortex Size, Group Size, and the Evolution of Language’, Current Anthropology 34:2 (1993), 189. For criticism of this approach see: Christopher McCarthy et al., ‘Comparing Two Methods for Estimating Network Size’, Human Organization 60:1 (2001), 32; R. A. Hill and R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Social Network Size in Humans’, Human Nature 14:1 (2003), 65.
22. David J. Meltzer, First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
47. Ramesh Chandra, Identity and Genesis of Caste System in India (Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2005); Michael Bamshad et al., ‘Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Population’, Genome Research 11 (2001): 904-1004; Susan Bayly, Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
81. Stephen R. Bown, Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner, and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Matin's Press, 2004); Kenneth John Carpenter, The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
67. Susan Blackmore, The Meme Machine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
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7. Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá, Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality (New York: Harper, 2010); S. Beckerman and P. Valentine (eds.), Cultures of Multiple Fathers: The Theory and Practice of Partible Paternity in Lowland South America (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002).
73. 全球规模最大的银行,苏格兰皇家银行(Royal Bank of Scotland),于2007年申报的存款为1.3兆美元,是1500年全球总产值的五倍。参见 ‘Annual Report and Accounts 2008’, The Royal Bank of Scotland, 35, accessed December 10, 2010.
http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/RBS/626570033x0x278481/eb7a003a-5c9b-41ef-bad3-81fb98a6c823/RBS_GRA_2008_09_03_09.pdf
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40. Constance Brittaine Bouchard, Strong of Body, Brave and Noble: Chivalry and Society in Medieval France (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998), 99; Mary Martin McLaughlin, ‘Survivors and Surrogates: Children and Parents from the Ninth to Thirteenth Centuries’, in Medieval Families: Perspectives on Marriage, Household and Children, ed. Carol Neel (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), 81 n. 81; Lise E. Hull, Britain's Medieval Castles (Westport: Praeger, 2006), 144.
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2. Robin Dunber, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).
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110. Manuel Eisner, ‘Modernization, Self-Control and Lethal Violence’, British Journal of Criminology 41:4 (2001), 618-638; Manuel Eisner, ‘Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 30 (2003), 83-142; ‘World Report on Violence and Health: Summary, Geneva 2002’, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010,
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125. Robert H. Waterston et al., ‘Initial Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Mouse Genome’, Nature 420:6915 (2002), 520.九_九_藏_书_网
21. L.H. Keeley, ‘Proto-Agricultural Practices Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross- Cultural Survey’, in Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, ed. T. Douglas Price and Anne Birgitte Gebauer (Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research Press, 1995), 243– 72; R. Jones, ‘Firestick Farming’, Australian Natural History 16 (1969), 224- 28.
26. Katherine A. Spielmann, ‘A Review: Dietary Restriction on Hunter-Gatherer Women and the Implications for Fertility and Infant Mortality’, Human Ecology 17:3 (1989), 321-45. 并请参见:Bruce Winterhalder and Eric Alder Smith, ‘Analyzing Adaptive Strategies: Human Behavioral Ecology at Twenty Five’, Evolutionary Anthropology 9:2 (2000), 51-72.
116. David Biello, ‘Bacteria Transformed into Biofuels Refineries’, Scientific American, January 27, 2010, accessed December 10, 2010,
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45. Sheldon Pollock, ‘Axialism and Empire’, in Axial Civilizations and World History, ed. Johann P. Arnason, S. N. Eisenstadt and Bj.rn Wittrock (Leiden: Brill, 2005), 397-451.
37. Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 121.
34. Robert B. Mark, The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002), 24.
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93. Carl Trocki, Opium, Empire and the Global Political Economy (New York: Routledge, 1999), 91.
63. Alexander Yakobson, ‘Us and Them: Empire, Memory and Identity in Claudius Speech on Bringing Gauls into the Roman Senate’, in On Memory: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Doron Mendels (Oxford: Peter Land, 2007), 23-24.
76. Wrigley, English Population History, 296.
10. Brian Hare, The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think (Dutton: Penguin Group, 2013).
55. Glyn Davies, A History of Money: from Ancient Times to the Present Day (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1994), 15.
35. Raymond Westbrook, ‘Old Babylonian Period’, in A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law, vol. 1, ed. Raymond Westbrook (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 361- 430; Martha T. Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 2nd ed. (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997), 71-142; M. E. J. Richardson, Hammurabi’s Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary (London: T & T Clark International, 2000).
118. James G. Wallis et al., ‘Expression of a Synthetic Antifreeze Protein in Potato Reduces Electrolyte Release at Freezing Temperatures’, Plant Molecular Biology 35:3 (1997), 323-30.
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121. Ya-Ping Tang et al., ‘Genetic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Mice’, Nature 401 (1999), 63-69.
131. Miguel Nicolelis, Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains and Machines – and How It Will Change Our Lives (New York: Times Books, 2011).
132. Chris Berdik, ‘Turning Thought into Words’, BU Today, October 15, 2008, accessed March 22, 2012, http://www.bu.edu/today/2008/turning-thoughtsinto-words/
130. David Brown, ‘For 1st Woman With Bionic Arm, a New Life Is Within Reach’, The Washington Post, September 14, 2006, accessed December 10, 2010,
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31. Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969); E.C. Amoroso and P.A. Jewell, ‘The Exploitation of the Milk-Ejection Reflex by Primitive People’, in Man and Cattle: Proceedings of the Symposium on Domestication at the Royal Anthropological Institute, 24-26 May 1960, ed. A.E. Mourant and F.E. Zeuner (London: The Royal Anthropological Institute, 1963), 129-34.
29. Charles Patterson, Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust (New York: Lantern Books, 2002), 9-10; Peter J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby (ed.), The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals (London: Duckworth, 1969), 259.
95. Mark, Origins of the Modern World, 109.
96. Nathan S. Lewis and Daniel G. Nocera, ‘Powering the Planet: Chemical Challenges in Solar Energy Utilization’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:43 (2006), 15731.
97. Kazuhisa Miyamoto (ed.), ‘Renewable Biological Systems for Alternative Sustainable Energy Production’, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 128 (Osaka: Osaka University, 1997), chapter 2.1.1, accessed December 10, 2010,
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James Barber, ‘Biological Solar Energy’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365:1853 (2007), 1007.
106. 关于过去这几十年前所未有的和平状态,特别可参见:Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein, Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide (New York, N.Y.: Dutton, 2011); Gat, War in Human Civilization.
75. Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 31; Wrigley, English Population History, 295; Christian, Maps of Time, 450, 452; ‘World Health Statistic Report 2009’, 35-45, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010 http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf.
58. 关于麦元的信息,我参考了一本未出版的博士论文:Refael Benvenisti, Economic Institutions of Ancient Assyrian Trade in the Twentieth to Eighteenth Centuries BC (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 2011). 并请参见:Norman Yoffee, ‘The Economy of Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. J. M. Sasson (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1995), 1387-99; R. K. Englund, ‘Proto-Cuneiform Account-Books and Journals’, in Creating Economic Order: Record-keeping, Standardization, and the Development of Accounting in the Ancient Near East, ed. Michael Hudson and Cornelia Wunsch (Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 2004), 21-46; Marvin A. Powell, ‘A Contribution to the History of Money in Mesopotamia prior to the Invention of Coinage’, in Festschrift Lubor Matou., ed. B. Hru.ka and G. Komoróczy (Budapest: E.tv.s Loránd Tudományegyetem, 1978), 211-43; Marvin A. Powell, ‘Money in Mesopotamia’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 39:3 (1996), 224-42; John F. Robertson, ‘The Social and Economic Organization of Ancient Mesopotamian Temples’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 443-500; M. Silver, ‘Modern Ancients’, in Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction, ed. R. Rollinger and U. Christoph (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004), 65-87; Daniel C. Snell, ‘Methods of Exchange and Coinage in Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 1487-97.藏书网
84. Christian, Maps of Time, 436.
16. I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare’, World Archaology 35:1 (2003), 145-65; Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000); Azar Gat, War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vencl, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57-73.
8. Noel G. Butlin, Economics and the Dreamtime: A Hypothetical History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 98-101; Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians (Sydney: Allen & Unwin , 2002), 15; William Howell Edwards, An Introduction to Aboriginal Societies (Wentworth Falls, N.S.W.: Social Science Press, 1988), 52.
17. James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea) and the Archeology of Early Modern Humans’, in Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, ed. Paul Mellars, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Katie Boyle (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 395-410; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘When Did Humans First Arrived in Grater Australia and Why Is It Important to Know?’, Evolutionary Anthropology, 6:4 (1998), 132-46; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Dating the Colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea): A Review of Recent Research’, Journal of Radiological Science 31:6 (2004), 835-53; Jon M. Erlandson, ‘Anatomically Modern Humans, Maritime Voyaging, and the Pleistocene Colonization of the Americas’, in The first Americans: the Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, ed. Nina G. Jablonski (San Francisco: University of California Press, 2002), 59-60, 63-64; Jon M. Erlandson and Torben C. Rick, ‘Archeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems’, Annual Review of Marine Science 2 (2010), 231-51; Atholl Anderson, ‘Slow Boats from China: Issues in the Prehistory of Indo-China Seafaring’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, 16 (2000), 13- 50; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Maritime Navigation in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic’, Earth and Planetary Sciences 328 (1999), 559-60; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Seafaring in the Pleistocene’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 13:1 (2003), 41-66.
72. 当代最大的货轮能够承载大约10万吨的货物。在1470年,全球舰队船队加起来,承载量也不超过32万吨。到了1570年,总承载量已达到73万吨。(Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 97).
92. 这里举的面包店例子在计算上经过简化,并非完全精确。因为银行金库中每存有1元就能贷出10元,如果银行现在有100万美元的存款,其实只能贷出约909000美元,而必须将91000美元留在金库里。但为了方便读者理解,我还是决定将数字简化。此外,银行也并不总是遵守这些法规。
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